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Grammatical aspect Essay Example for Free
Grammatical aspect EssayUse the unproblematic past to express the idea that an proceeding started and entire at a peculiar(prenominal) time in the past. Sometimes, the utterer may non actually mention the particularised time, scarce they do have one specific time in mind. Examples I saw a movie yesterday. I didnt see a make up yesterday. Last year, I traveled to Japan. Last year, I didnt travel to Korea. Did you have dinner last nighttime? She washed her car. He didnt wash his car. employment 2 A Series of Completed Actions pic We use the elementary past times to list a series of completed executions in the past. These actions nonice 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.Examples I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. He arrived from the airport at 800, checked into the hotel at 900, and met the others at 1000. Did you leave flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? use 3 Duration in past(a) pic The simplex olden appr ize be used with a date which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions much(prenominal)(prenominal) as for two years, for five legal proceeding, all day, all year, etc. Examples I lived in brazil nut for two years. Shauna studied Japanese for five years. They sat at the beach all day. They did not cohere at the party the entire time. We talked on the phone for thirty minutes. A How long did you wait for them? B We waited for one hour. USE 4 Habits in the knightly pic The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same importation as used to. To make it clear that we are public lecture about(predicate) a habit, we often add expressions such as always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc. Examples I studied French when I was a child. He played the violin. He didnt play the piano. Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? She worked at the movie theater after school. They never went to school, they always skipped class. USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations pic The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression used to. Examples She was shy as a child, but now she is actually outgoing. He didnt like tomatoes forrader. Did you live in Texas when you were a kid? People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past. IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First.Clauses are groups of lyric poem which have heart and soul but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word when such as when I dropped my pen or when class began These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses. Examples When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question. She answered my question when I paid her one dollar. When -clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same social occasion first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question.It is not important whether when I paid her one dollar is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a antithetic meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar. Example I paid her one dollar when she answered my question. ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below envision the placement for grammar adverbs such as always, scarce, never, ever, still, unsloped, etc. Examples You just called Debbie. Did you just call Debbie? Past regular descriptor was/were + present participle Examples You were studying when she called. Were you studying when she called? You were not studying when she called. Complete List of Past straight Forms USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past pic Use the Past s traight to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. Examples I was watching TV when she called. When the phone rang, she was pen a letter. While we were having the picnic, it started to rain. What were you doing when the earthquake started? I was hearing to my iPod, so I didnt hear the fire alarm. You were not auditory modality to me when I told you to turn the oven off. While deception was sleeping last night, someone stole his car. Sammy was postponement for us when we got off the plane. While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off. A What were you doing when you broke your leg? B I was snowboarding. USE 2 item Time as an Interruption pic In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interrupt ion. Examples Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. At midnight, we were still thrust through the desert. Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work. IMPORTANT In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action. Examples Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner. I started eating at 6 PM. Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. I started earlier and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner. USE 3 tally Actions pic When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are correspond. Examples I was studying while he was making dinner. While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television. Were you listening while he was talking? I wasnt paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made some(prenominal) mistakes. What were you doing while you were wa iting? Thomas wasnt working, and I wasnt working either. They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time. USE 4 Atmosphere In position, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past. Example When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and nodes were waiting to be helped. angiotensin converting enzyme customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service. USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with Always pic The Past Continuous with haggling such as always or always expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression used to but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words always or constantly between be and verb+ing. Examples She was always coming to class late. He was c onstantly talking. He annoyed everyone. I didnt like them because they were always complaining. While vs. When Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word when such as when she called or when it bit me. Other clauses begin with while such as while she was sleeping and while he was surfing. When you talk about things in the past, when is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas while is usually followed by Past Continuous.While expresses the idea of during that time. Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence. Examples I was studying when she called. While I was studying, she called. REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / entangled Verbs It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any invariable tenses. Also, true non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of u sing Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past. Examples Jane was being at my ingleside when you arrived.Not go under Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples You were just studying when she called. Were you just studying when she called? active voice / PASSIVE Examples The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. wide awake The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. nonoperational Past stainless leap had + past participle Examples You had studied side of meat ahead you move to New York. Had you studied English earlier you moved to New York? You had not studied English in the first place you moved to New York. Complete List of Past utter(a) Forms USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past pic The Past unblemished expresses the id ea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. Examples I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. Tony knew Istanbul so easy because he had visited the city several times. Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? She only silent the movie because she had read the book. Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance. A Had you ever visited the U. S. before your trip in 2006? B Yes, I had been to the U. S. once before. USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs) pic With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.Examples We had had that car for ten ye ars before it broke down. By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. They felt bad about selling the house because they had have it for more than forty years. Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words live, work, teach, and study are sometimes used in this way even though they are non Non-Continuous Verbs. IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect pic.Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary. Example She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. MOREOVER If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when before or after is used in the sentence. The words before and after actually sort out you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct. Examples She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. HOWEVER pic If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used. Examples She never saw a stand out before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska.Correct ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples You had previously studied English before you moved to New York. Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples George h ad repaired many cars before he received his mechanics license. Active Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanics license. Passive Past Perfect Continuous FORM had been + present participle Examples You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she terminally arrived. Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived? You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. Complete List of Past Perfect Continuous Forms USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past pic We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. For five minutes and for two weeks are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous.Notice that this is link up to the Present Perfect Continuous however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past. Examples They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived. She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business. How long had you been waiting to get on the bus? Mike wanted to sit down because he had been stand up all day at work. James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia. A How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?B I had not been studying Turkish very long. USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past pic Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect. Examples Jason was drop because he had been jogging. Sam gained weight because he had been overeating. Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class. Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous If you do not include a duration such as for five minutes, for two weeks or since Friday, many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous.Be ca reful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference. Examples He was tired because he was exercising so hard. This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment. He was tired because he had been exercising so hard. This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time.It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished. REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect. Examples The wheel had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct ADVERB PLACEMENT.The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples You had only been waiting there for a some minutes when she arrived. Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurants fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. Active The restaurants fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. Passive NOTE Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common.