вторник, 26 марта 2019 г.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay -- Pregnancy Health Essays
fetal alcoholic drink SyndromeMany studies fall in established that a developing organism is susceptible to exogenous and endogenic factors during certain stage of the organisms development. The effects of ethyl inebriant or grain alcohol on the developing fetus, which manifest a sorting of characteristic abnormalities, atomic number 18 collectively called Fetal alcohol Syndrome. Ethanol icon to the fetus causes various malformation ranging from the electric cellular to the organismic levels with the eventual results oft being different levels of mental retardation (3). chick embryo studies leave behind a relatively good model for defining the effects of ethanol at many organizational levels of neurogenesis, cell death, neuronal migration and differentiation, cell to cell connectivity, and synaptic function When ethanol is administered to embryos on days one to third of development, the cholinergic neuronal phenotypes were markedly decreased possibly in the save of catecho laminergic phenotypes which were increased. This differential sensitivity of these two early neuroblast populations to ethanol may as well reflect the difference in their ontogenesis cholinergic elements are inform to be expressed as early as the primitive streak, whereas catecholaminergic elements pop later (3). Embryos on embryonic day one are closely susceptible to the effects of ethanol. Embryonic day one in the hoot is marked by an active process of neurogenesis and neuro-organization. The neural tube elements are made during this early embryonic period. Brodie and Vernadakis inspected the effect of ethanol on cholinergic spinal cord neurons during this embryonic period. The neuroblast during this period shows plasticity with respect to neurotransmitter phenotypes, when ex... ...s in these target organs at critical developmental periods would result in defects of these organs (5). BIBLIOGRAPHY Abel, E. and Sokol, R. A Revised Conservative Estimate of the Incidence of FAS and Its frugal Impact. Alcoholism, 0145-6008514-524 (1991). Bonthius, D. and West, J. Permanent Neuronal Deficits in Rats Exposed to Alcohol During the Brain growing Spurt. Teratology, 44147-163 (1991). Brodie, C. and Vernadakis, R. Critical Periods to Ethanol Exposure During Early Neuroembryogenesis in the Chick Embryo Cholinergic Neurons. Developmental Brain Research, 56223-228 (1990). Burd, L. and Martsolf, J. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnosis and Syndromal Variability. Physiology and Behavior, 4639-43 (1989). Keir, W. Inhibition of Retinoic Acid Synthesis and its Implications in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Alcoholism. 15/3560-564 (1991).